PLoS ONE - Volume 4, issue 7

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Electronic ISSN
1932-6203

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to compare two different feedback controllers for the stabilization of quiet standing in humans, taking into account that the intrinsic ankle stiffness is insufficient and that there is a large delay inducing instability in the feedback loop: 1) a standard linear

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. For colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins) that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light) an

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Beside its well described role in the central and peripheral nervous system 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), commonly known as serotonin, is also a potent immuno-modulator. Serotoninergic receptors (5-HTR) are expressed by a broad range of inflammatory cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). In t

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

DNA replication has a finite measurable error rate, net of repair, in all cells. Clonal proliferation of cancer cells leads therefore to accumulation of random mutations. A proportion of these mutational events can create new immunogenic epitopes that, if processed and presented by an MHC allele,

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual c

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

The symbiosis between zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) and corals is a fundamental basis of tropical marine ecosystems. However the physiological interactions of the hosts and symbionts are poorly understood. Recently, intracellular crystalline deposits in Symbiodinium<

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Background

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an indispensable factor for maintaining mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. A feeder layer and serum are also needed to maintain an undifferentiated state, however, such animal derived materials need to be eliminated for clinical applications

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Consciousness has been proposed to emerge from functionally integrated large-scale ensembles of gamma-synchronous neural populations that form and dissolve at a frequency in the theta band. We propose that discrete moments of perceptual experience are implemented by transient gamma-band synchroni

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

Background

The pH and voltage-regulated Slo3 K+ channel, a homologue of the Ca2+- and voltage-regulated Slo1 K+ channel, is thought to be primarily expressed in sperm, but the properties of Slo3 studied in heterologous systems differ somewhat from the native sperm

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009

Abstract

BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, has recently been identified as an integrator of several anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells. Thus, activation of EGFR, GPCRs or PI3K pathway leads to BAD phosphorylation and inhibition of apoptosis. Increased levels of BAD

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009