PLoS ONE - Volume 2, issue 2

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Electronic ISSN
1932-6203

Abstract

To seek evidence of a primitive adaptive immune system (AIS) before vertebrate, we examined whether lymphocytes or lymphocyte-like cells and the related molecules participating in the lymphocyte function existed in amphioxus. Anatomical analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of lym

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007

Abstract

Background

Genome-wide association studies hold substantial promise for identifying common genetic variants that regulate susceptibility to complex diseases. However, for the detection of small genetic effects, single studies may be underpowered. Power may be improved by combining genome-wide data

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007

Abstract

Global influenza surveillance is one of the most effective strategies for containing outbreaks and preparing for a possible pandemic influenza. Since the end of 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) H5N1 have caused many outbreaks in poultries and wild birds from East Asia and ha

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007

Abstract

Background

The mesoderm of the amphibian embryo is formed through an inductive interaction in which vegetal cells of the blastula-staged embryo act on overlying equatorial cells. Candidate mesoderm-inducing factors include members of the transforming growth factor type β family such as Vg1, activi

Journal: PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007